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Every Person Reflects His-Story:

A Criticism of Traditional Behavioral Genetics

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The Book of Genesis illuminates how humanity is created in the Image of God. However, as a result of temptation and in the use of our freewill external forces through the leading of peer pressure of The Serpent and in our intent and action eating of The Fruit of knowledge of Good and Evil, or use of Pride, Our perfected image, or genetic composition, became corrupted. As a result, all humanity becomes vulnerable to death, and the environment turns against mankind as a reaction sin. The result of this corruption is our initial perfected holistic or completely mental, essential and spiritual presence is separated from God and all creation.

Throughout the Bible, we see a progression of diffusion of growth and decay or various struggles and loss that correlate to this continual imperfect-perfection stage growth progress. However, we also see the sovereignty of God at work in the restoration of humanity and all humanity. First expressed in the Old Testament through the various lesser messiahs such as Abraham, Moses, Melchizedek, and Boaz and in the New Testament through the teachings life examples.  Finally, this process is illuminated in the prophesized death, resurrection and ascension of Christ in which the genetic curse of Adam, or all humanity, was removed to all whom come to live in obedience in and by faith in Christ in cooperation with God through the aid of the Holy Spirit.

Faith like any other form of belief begins with curiosity, then may transform into convincing, a wavering understanding or Probability, and finally evolves into conviction or the pursuit and living in and by the possibility-probability and assurance of truth.

The Bible is in part a book of history, part a scientific journal, part a philosophical dialogue, part legal guidelines for social living, but in truth is an illustration of both the never-ending process of creation.

This Eugenic process involving in various stages required for our transformation back into the Likeness of Christ was stolen from us as a result from our initial sin of pride and involves overcoming ones’ continual transgressions as well as acceptances of shortcomings and forgiveness. The reaction of sin often produces hostility within us and in all creation around us. Furthermore, over 2/3 of the Bible is written in story form using allegory, metaphors, contextual language and such to tell of mankind and God’s  interaction and relational aspects and expectations of morality and general wisdom.

The Bible is a qualitative or an active telling of God’s Love Story for Man and his continual involvement and efforts to redeem us throughout history. His-Story and that of all men is told in stages within scripture. Ecclesiastes 3 compares life to spring, summer, fall and winter.  Finally, the Gospel is told in stages from the Birth of Jesus, to his baptism and then his death. This progressions can be further broken down in a 3 day waiting period followed by his  resurrection and finally his ascension, (after 40 days) and the sending of “His Presence, or Holy Spirit” at Pentecost ( 50 days/ during Jewish Harvest Fest).

Quantification studies seek to identify and correlate variables that exist within a subject or between issues or factors within groups, the environment, or outside individuals (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). In contrast Qualitative Methods express traits in symbols, graphs, or other forms that focus on the perception and prospective of subjects and thus tend to tell a story (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).  The weakness of a traditional behavioral genetic study whether the basis is on an individual, family, or on adoption studies or even group dynamics is it only accounts for the genetic variables and underestimates the influence of environmental forces (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).  Forces of natural origin such as virus, disease, and natural disasters, and manmade conditions such as war, famine and other concerns need to be account for.

Additionally all external environmental elements include issues of nurture, such as the amount of encouragement and love present in the household and by peers, as well as social, political, economic, spiritual and as mentioned biological and environmental crisis, and other influences of individuals, society need to be accounted for.

Finally, We evolve and attempt to coexist in peace, hope, love and joy and endure graciously in suffering awaiting our finally restoration of all creation and our assurance of retransformation in to the exactness of Christ himself for those of us striving to live obediently in faith for his glory. Awaiting the return of our Savior King and serving not Principalities or the Ways of the World but living as Ambassadors of the Way and Stewards and Citizens and Ambassadors of the Kingdom of Heaven.

In defense of the genetic view or Nature. All of us inherit recessive and dominate genes that determine certain bio-socio-cognitive-emotional traits and the potentiality or certain innate abilities and disabilities (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Yet, there is merit to the oppositional view of those who support a view towards more of an extrinsic-environmental or nurture based approach.as many of these inborn traits must be activated by external forces whether of physical or of a metaphysical nature (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

The traditional methods of qualitative studies tend to focus on genetic traits and at times can overemphasis environment variables.  Whereas quantitative studies focus on thoughts, feelings and other reactions and often are obtained from self-reporting methods, simple observation, and as such are subject to a certain degree of bias by either the subject, the environment or the observer / tester or other forms of bias (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Thus, to gain full comprehension of people and culture one should use a combination of both types of research method.  This form of analysis, or critical thinking, involves abstraction, logic and reason. Additionally, a combination of theories and methods should form the basis of a systematic model and then become the foundation of an eclectic or holist method.

The word holistic is derived from whole or wholesome, which means “completeness”. This word has origins in Old English, Greek and Latin deriving from “Holy” or “without sin”.

The Bible states, all humanity entered perfected creation before the fall (Gen. 1: 26-27) and thus will return to perfection after Christ returns and establish his Eternal Reign. This reunion and restoring of  All Creation to Oneness with God and All Humanity whom so chose to live obediently in and by faith to his Image is a unity of mind-body, soul & Spirit (Rom 6, 8, 12; 2 Cor 4; Phil 1-6; Isa 11).

Thus, Our Blessed Assurance offered and repaid by the Gracious and Merciful Sacrificial Love Offering on the Tree of Life is a gift to everyone who chooses to accept the gift, repent from Sin, walk in Christ’s Steps, practicing and living in faith and love. For true freedom is not found in works or deed of man but In Christ alone.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1161

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

 

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IS HUMANITY TRULY FREE!

AN ANALYSIS ON THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD VERSUS THE WILL OF MAN

 

 

TRENTON C. RINDOKS

RLGN 335

MARCH 11, 2016

 

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Introduction

Is humanity truly free or is God in control of every, thought, and action within creation? “The contemporary issue of God’s Providence versus human will is often associated with two theological views that began in the sixteenth century and has its basis on the position of John Calvin and Jacob Arminius.”[1] God’s Providence can thus be defined as, “The theological doctrine that the world and our lives are not ruled by chance or fate but by God, who lays bare his purposes of providence in the incarnation of his Son.”[2]  In contrast many people throughout the world hold the belief of polytheism or that there is not one supreme being in control of the world rather the world is under the control of a multitude of God’s, still others belief in materialism professing that God does not exist this exist by the laws of nature and the universe itself.[3] Under the three views on existence, fate, freewill or providence a multitude of philosophical and scientific theories have been conceived to prove or disprove the providence of God. The focus of this essay is on current issue of the Providence of God as it pertains to the Christian worldview and freewill.

The Providence of God: Predestination versus Freewill

The basic assumption of Calvinism is that man is born in a state of total depravity, thus he inherited the capacity to sin within his heart and mind from the guilt of Adam’s original sin (Rom. 5:12) and is by nature a child of wrath (Eph. 2:3). John Calvin writes of the predestination or choosing of some and the rejecting of other for salvation in Institutes of the Christian Religion. In five articles, he outlines his position on original sin. First, God decreed to save all who believe and preserver in faith, while all others are to be judged and left to damnation. Secondly, Christ died for all men on the cross, however redemption and forgiveness of sin is open only the gift of the believer. Man does not possess freewill, or can he obtain salvation apart from Christ. In this depraved state of apostasy and sin he can truly, think, act, or behave in a manner of consistent with anything righteous or good as he was born separate from Christ.  Next Without grace, man cannot do anything good, but grace is inseparable since man has resisted the Holy Spirit, the agency of faith. Finally, while believers receive the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and are able to partake in the fruit and gifts of the Spirit (Gal.  5:22-23, 1 Cor. 12: 1-11). In addition, resist the powers of principalities and Satan (Eph. 6: 10:20).  However, on the matter of whether or not a believer can fall away and be lost should be left to the determination of the Holy Bible before we  teach it fully within the ‘ full persuasion of our minds.[4]”” The basic premise is God is predetermines every decision and every event and therefore nothing happens by chance or fate.

The main objection to predestination, election, is humanity is a slave a mere puppet or machine under the control and the domination of the will of the master without freedom of choice on the part of the agent or created.  In response, Johnathan Edwards explains that in our emotions and within our ability of discernment: “We always make our choices based on the strongest inclinations at the moment.[5]” Thus, although we may feel a desire to perform a certain action the consequence of the actual event will dictate whether or not we will actually perform such behavior or action or not. In such a manner, we are afforded a degree of limited freedom even though God predestined our life and the events. Although, Calvinism teaches that because of the fall and the inheritance of original sin humanities desires are depraved and influenced by principalities and Satan an individual simply commits a crime because he desire to do so and in such we are not a slave under any submissive control but have a certain degree of freewill.

To understand the Calvinist view one must understand the perspective of predestination in light of God’s omnipotence and his ability of foreknowledge. God determines the proximity and time where a person is to be born of all nations (Acts: 17:46), God, knows the time of your death (Matt.; 10:30).  God, accomplishes all things according to his counsel and will (Eph. 1: 11).  Ultimately every action originated from God and Glorify God (Rom 11:36, and in a direct correlation God determines the plans of all people over the own freewill (Prov. 19:21; 20:24).

The Arminian View (Free-will Position) suggests God limits a certain amount of his Sovereignty in order that each person may choice to enter freely into a loving relationship with him, for love must be based and maintained on choice otherwise it is not a real loving relationship but one of domination or even a form of abuse.  Although, God is omnipotent, is the creator of all things (John 1:3; Gen 1-2; and thus may predestine whatever or whomever he wishes Acts 2:23; 4:28 Isa. 46:10-11).

Additionally all things are from him and through him and are meant to glorify him Rom 11: 6 and in him all are inspired (1 Tim 3:16; Prov. 19:21; 20:24). God however gives one the choice to follow him freely throughout the Bible (Gen 2:16-17; Jer. 7: 1-15; John 3:-16-20) and holds them to a moral obligations to their choices. Humanity is expected to make the appropriate moral choices  but often break the heart of God and some will even reject God entirely as illustrated in (Luke 7:30).

God however does not delight in inflicting pain or evil (Ezek.  18: 30-32) nor wish any condemn any ( Pet. 3:9) Instead he extends his gracious love to all sinners ( Isa. 30:18) and always strives to redeemed those who are lost ( Luke 15). Finally, the Greatest commandment of Jesus states One is to Love God and Love others and in to doing so one will keep all the Law (Matt. 22:36-38),

Additionally Paul proclaims that true freedom “It is for freedom that Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by a yoke of slavery (Gal. 5: 1).” The Yoke of Slavery can come from the one who is throwing you into confusion (justification by the law/ conformity to cultural distinction), whomever that may be, will have to pay the penalty (Gal. 5: 10 NIV). Secondly, “Those who are trying to be justified by the law have been alienated from Christ; and have fallen away from grace (Gal 5:4 NIV).”

Finally, Paul teaches of the need of love and sanctification. “You, my brothers and sisters, were called to be free. But do not use your freedom to indulge the flesh; rather, serve one another humbly in love. For the entire law is fulfilled in keeping this one command: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ If you bite and devour each other, watch out or you will be destroyed by each other. So I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the flesh. For the flesh desires what is contrary to the Spirit and the Spirit what is contrary to the flesh. They are in conflict with each other, so that you are not to do whatever you want. But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law (Gal 5: 13-18 NIV).”

Jesus Christ only proclaimed seven basic commands during his ministry; George Patterson outlines theses as follows:

  1. Repent and Belief ( Mark 1:15)
  2. Baptism and Sanctification, Continuity of New Life, ( Matt. 28: 18-20; act 2:38; Rom. 6:11)
  3. Love of God & Others ( Matt. 22: 37:40)
  4. Communion ( Luke 22: 17-20)
  5. Pray ( Matt. 6: 5-15)
  6. Give ( Matt. 6: 19-21; Luke 6:38)
  7. Evangelize ( Matt. 28: 18-20)[6]

 

To understand the implication of God’s love in a social context one must understand the relationship on the personhood of God himself.  “First, God is composed of three distinctive persons each with the ability to speak, love and will of their own yet form the same entity or personhood. Each person within the personhood exists within a harmonious balance, coequal, coeternal, and copowerful, present from the beginning and until the end of time, and are composed of the same substance and essence. However, each performs certain functions within the Godhead or personhood.[7]

Next, if one compares the relational nature of trinity to the intended relational nature of humanity one can fully understand the concept and need for freewill from God’s perspective.  “Relationality is the primary way humans reflect God’s image. Genesis 1: 26-27 states Then God said.  ‘Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness…So God created humankind in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.’ The us connotes the triune of the Godhead who created humanity in the image of God, throughout the Bible, unity and uniqueness are simultaneously described as the relational aspects of the Godhead, This relational application as it pertains to humanity became revealed in the various covenantal relationships between God and humanity and actualized in Jesus Christ. As a result it to should form the basis for the relationship of the family grounded on a mutuality of indwelling and fellowship in a similar manner[8].”

Finally, The Arminian Perspective could be seen as one that leads to a dependence on faith. First, as the ability to make one’s own life choices instead of living out the dictates or appointments of a sovereign master can often lead to frustrating and mistakes one must learn to rely on the power of prayer for guidance direction and inspiration.

Secondly, many Arminianist believe that faith is provide by a form of election and even certain critical events are predestined by God, thus while not every action is not predestined by God. God provides the necessary faith for major events that require acts of faith. However, one can commit apostasy and choice out of one’s freewill to divorce one’s self from God’s will entirely when one is blocked by sin. Thus, sanctification is a process of both works and deed and inseparable faith. The inter-dwelling of the Holy Spirit is required in cooperation with the free agent during sanctification, restoring one to the Eikōn or image of God.  God, allows humankind the ability to make certain decisions and has given humanity dominion over certain aspects of creation but retains foreknow knowledge of all that will happen without controlling the outcome of every occurrence of every event.

The major objection to the freewill viewpoint is that it denies the sovereignty of God and overemphasizes the role of man in salvation and in his role in creation. Although, predestination guarantees God’s providence, the salvation of some and offers a certain level of security as that nothing happen in the universe by chance, it can lead to some unresolved questions such as why do bad things happen to believer. Why does evil exist? Why would a believer turn away from God and a host of other questions? The free- will position however, can answer these questions with simplicity for it was man who performed such actions out of own plans.

Furthermore, offering hope to those who have fallen away as God is always trying to restore or have a relationship with everyone. No one is predestined in the first place, for the premise of a loving relationship requires one to commit, maintain or leave the covenant thus is inclusive to all people / God does not discriminate. God is always fighting to maintain it on his end because God’s core nature (Essence) is love, grace and mercy in itself.

The Created: The Free Agent Coauthor of Creation

A third Position (Open-Theism) suggests God knows “All that Shall Be and All that May Be” in History. “This view proposes prophecy should be considers as conditional warnings and that God is sovereign in that that he can predestine history and foreknow as much of it as he choices.[9]” Thus the future is still be written by God and man acts a coauthor of creation. This authority and aspect of the image of God was given to humanity during creation. “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth (Gen 1:26 NASB).”

Additionally God has promised unto the believer and to the church, “He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father—to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen (Rev. 1:6.)” y, In the Book of Daniel is promised “Then the sovereignty, the dominion and the greatness of all the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the people of the saints of the Highest One; His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all the dominions will serve and obey Him ( Dan. 7:27).” Although some will conclude that, the passage in Daniel refers to the end of days for In John 5:19 John states, “We know that we are of God, and the whole world is under the sway of the evil one.” Paul warns, “We must put on the Armor of God for the world is under control of principalities and Satan (Eph. 6:12-17). Additionally, “We shall become a living sacrifice, renewing our mind and not conform to the ways of this world. Rather one should trust in faith, walk by grace and enter into the unified body confirming to the ways of the Spirit and think sensibly, while worshiping or glorifying God in all things. We must conquer evil with Good, leaving vengeance to God. Become humble and never boastful (wise in your own estimation). Under most circumstance live in peace with all humanity, and rejoice with all who weep while encouraging one another. One should be persistent in hope, bless those who persecute and harm us. Concomitantly, providing for the needs of everyone. Thus doing as Christ Commanded, ‘we shall love and glorify God and all people”, but detest all things evil for such things are against the nature of God (Romans 12).” The Passage in Daniel can be seen as being fulfilled at least in part in the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. As coauthors, the believer and the church must fight against the forces of corruption and evil in order to fulfill the Kingdom calling of God. This Calling is inclusive to every people without distinction of nationality, culture or any form of discrimination except when such individuals or people are in contrast to the nature of God himself. John Scott comments, “Paragraph five of the Lausanne Covenant is not just negative. It expresses penitence ‘both for our neglect and for having sometimes regarded evangelism and social concern as mutually exclusive’, and affirms, “evangelism and socio-political involvement are both part of our Christian duty”. It touches on biblical doctrines. First, the doctrine of God: ‘we affirm that God is both the Creator and Judge of all men’ and that we should share ‘his concern for justice and reconciliation throughout human society and for the liberation of men from every kind of oppression’. Secondly, the doctrine of man: ‘Because mankind is made in the image of God, every person, regardless of race, religion, or worldview,  thus has an intrinsic worth which he should be respected, served, however never subjugated’. Finally, he speaks on salvation: ‘The message of salvation implies also a message of judgement and we should not be afraid to rebuke evil and discrimination for such thing are against the very nature of God and should be reformed wherever and whenever such actions occur .’”[10]

Another consideration on the open theist position is that God tests and knows the hearts of all people. The best example is the book of Job. Here we find a man who was the priest of his family and Satan challenges God that if he was to cause him a great deal of suffering he would fall away from him. His friends accuse him of apostasy, his family die, and he even questions God but comes to realize God has soveignty and is in control. Although this may seem more of an indication of predestination, Job chose to endure the suffering. He could have turned away from God, just as in theory, Jesus could have given into the temptations of Satan. The overall theme of the book teaches the reader five points on suffering. First suffering is satanic. Second, it is often serious and mysterious puzzle. Third. It may be the result of sin or the actions of others, Next suffering purifies the heart and finally suffering is providential and illustrates the power of God over man and the ability overcome with faith and grace alone.[11] The fact that God tests people illustrates the future is not predestined for the future is determined on the results of those who is tested. Another example can be traced back to the Garden of Eden and the Lord God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die (Gen. 2: 16-17).” However, the serpent knowing that Eve was not created within the Garden said to her, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden (Gen 3:1) ’?” If everything is predestined by God. God would have not allowed such an action to occur unless he planned for evil and sin to enter into the heart and mind of man. This is highly unlikely as God hates evil and thus, cannot even tolerate the sight of it (Ps. 5:-4-5; Hab. 1:13).  Since the future is open it for man to participate in creation and most importantly to have true relationship and community with God. This is most evident in the emphasis on prayer and the giving of Gifts by the Holy Spirt as well as the emphasis of the receiving and giving of blessings by God and then by the believers to others.

The main objection is God must know the future tense of all things including free agent to be truly omniscient. In response, God simply knows the all prospects of probabilities’ and possibilities that may occur and reacts accordingly. Additionally, as God is all Powerful and is everything God exists beyond the boundaries of Space, time and any of the known dimensions. Something that is everything (I am) either is everything or is nothing! A finite mind can never understand an infinite being. Such an existence is beyond comprehension.

Other Perspectives

In some third world countries or in nations where such people groups have immigrated Animism or the believe in the power of ancestors, nature spirits or some invisible force providing guidance to the people has been the basis of worldview and has been incorporated within the Christian Perspective of people from these cultures. The traditional biblical view is that such ideas lie in the realm of principalities and are thus acts of sorcery or witchcraft. However, many contemporary evangelist are placing such ideologies in the inclusive theological spectrum when incorporated with a profession of faith in Christ and are placing such spiritual entities in what is known as the Middle Kingdom. The simple answer is to associate any form of divine act that glorifies God with the Holy Spirit, angels or saints. Others seek to place those who practice shamanist medicine in the secular school of holistic healing.[12]  Postmodern Christian will defend that God wants a relationship with all humanity and even physical death does not necessary terminate the ability for one to achieve salvation. While Universalist will exert that Christ through the Holy Spirit can reveal himself any way to any person, the nature of faith is what matter not the name in which one calls the Messiah.[13] “In response to those who wish to practice a mystical or animistic form of Christianity the individual and society should focus on the greatness deliverance and freedom in the authority of Christ, many of the notions of animist and mystics can easily be explained away as scientific phenomena while other attributed to principalities.” However, the true answer to prayer are those that bring the greatest glory to God otherwise for some we may seek to Christianity their new magic.[14]

Experience

“Experience is, for me, the highest authority. The touchstone of validity is my own experience. No other person’s ideas, and none of my own ideas, are as authoritative as my experience. It is to experience that I must return repeatedly, to discover a closer approximation to truth as it is in the process of becoming in me. Neither the Bible nor the prophets — neither Freud nor research –neither the revelations of God nor man — can take precedence over my own direct experience. My experience is not authoritative because it is infallible. It is the basis of authority because it can always be checked in new primary ways. In this way its frequent error or fallibility is always open to correction.[15]“Carl Rogers is stating that self-actualization lies within the sphere of the individual’s perception. The Bible, divine revelation or any psychological training or knowledge cannot yield true wisdom it must come from experience. While wisdom is derived from experience, faith must also play a part in it as well. Plato acknowledge this in his view that matter or the flesh is corruptible (mutable) while the things of essence such as the soul and knowledge incorruptible thus divinely inspired. However, he is correct in stating that no ideas either his own, or any else’s are absolute true. Truth is always relative and any idea, concept, doctrine, or theory ever conceived is either a modification of an existing idea. All concepts must be partially fallible for that which is considered infallible will always contain a flaw or manipulation in the data, statistics or method of experimentation or perception. Imperfection is an inevitability of the human condition. However, we all must strive for growth.

Conclusion

You can choose a ready guide in some celestial voice. If you choose not to decide, you still have made a choice. You can choose from phantom fears and kindness that can kill. I will choose a path that’s clear I will choose free will.[16] Whether one believes that humanity has free will and is able to make their own choices, or God is total control or one believes in the possibility and probability of occurrence in the future depends how one views the sovereignty of God the nature of creation and one’s own perception of faith itself. The Doctrine of the Providence of God determines how each individual will react to positive and negative consequences in their life and can even determine whether one will come to profess and maintain a relationship of God. This doctrine also influence one’s view on the influence of sin and the necessity of sanctification and morality and thus forms a cornerstone in the foundation in the unity of the heart and mind as well as in one’s walk with Christ for the believer. Although the Bible offers some arguments for and against all three of the major positions, the Bibles does not support one view inherently. Therefore, the matter is up to the decision of the individual and the church. Unfortunately, like most doctrines this creates a schism in Body of Christ or universal church creating division instead of unity, and at times animosity instead of harmony. One may wonder if Christ is weeping over his broken body and all the needless doctrines, dogmas and laws.

 Bibliography

Balswick, Jack O., and Balswick Judith K. The Family: A Christian Perprective on the Contemporary Home. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014.

Boyd, Gregory A., and Paul R. Eddy. Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology. 2nd. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009.

George, Patterson. “The Spontaneous Multiplication of Churches.” In Perspectives On The World Christian Movement, edited by Ralph D. Winter, & Hawthorne Steven C., 639. Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009.

Hiebert, Paul G. “The Flaw of Excluding the Middle.” In Perspectives on the World Christian Movement, edited by Ralph D Winer, & Hawthorne Steven C., 407-414. Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009.

Hindson, Ed, and Gary Yates. The Essence of the Old Testament: A survey. Nashville: B&H Academics, 2012.

Lutzer, Erwin. The Doctrines That Divide. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1998.

Parker, T. H. L. “Providence of God.” In Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, edited by Walter A. Elwell. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.

Rogers, Carl Ransom. On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1995.

Rush. “Free Will.” Permanent Waves. Comps. Neal Peart, Lee Geddy, & Alex Lifeson. 1980. Compact Disc.

Slick, Matt. Christian Apologetic & Research Ministry. 2016. https://carm.org/trinity (accessed March 10, 2016).

Stott, John. “THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LAUSANNE.” International Review of Mission (ATLASerials, Religion Collection, EBSCOhost) 64, no. 255 (July 1975): 288-294.

 

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[1] Gregory A. Boyd and Paul R. Eddy, Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology, 2nd ed (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 34.

[2] T. H. L. Parker, “Providence of God.” In Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, edited by Walter A. Elwell. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001), 965.

[3]Gregory A. Boyd and Paul R. Eddy, Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology, 2nd ed (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 33.

 

[4] Erwin Lutzer, The Doctrines That Divide, (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1998), 178.

 

[5] Erwin Lutzer, The Doctrines That Divide, (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1998), 189.

 

[6] George, Patterson. “The Spontaneous Multiplication of Churches.” In Perspectives On The World Christian Movement, edited by Ralph D Winter, & Hawthorne Steven C, (Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009), 639.

 

[7] Matt Slick, Christian Apologetic & Research Ministry. 2016. https://carm.org/trinity (accessed 03 10, 2016).

 

[8] Jack O., Balswick, and Judith K. Balswick, The Family: A Christian Perprective on the Contemporary Home. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014), 4-5.

 

 

[9] Gregory A. Boyd and Paul R. Eddy, Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology, 2nd ed (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 34.

[10] John Stott, “THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LAUSANNE.” International Review of Mission (ATLASerials, Religion Collection, EBSCOhost) 64, no. 255 (July 1975), 288-294.

 

[11] Ed, Hindson, Ed, and Gary Yates, The Essence of the Old Testament: A survey. (Nashville: B&H Academics, 2012), 238-239.

 

[12] Paul G. Hiebert,  “The Flaw of Excluding the Middle.” In Perspectives on the World Christian Movement, edited by Ralph D Winer, & Hawthorne Steven C., (Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009), 407-414.

[13] Gregory A. Boyd and Paul R. Eddy, Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology, 2nd ed (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 202-207.

 

[14]Paul G. Hiebert,  “The Flaw of Excluding the Middle.” In Perspectives on the World Christian Movement, edited by Ralph D Winer, & Hawthorne Steven C., (Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009), 407-414..

[15] Carl Ransom Rogers,  On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1995), 23.

 

[16] Rush. “Free Will.” Permanent Waves. Comps. Neal Peart, Lee Geddy, & Alex Lifeson. 1980. Compact Disc.

 

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