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“The Theory of Everything” or the Great “I Am”?

A Perspective on Substitutive and Subsistence Coefficients

How Math May Quantify & Qualify One’s Satisfaction with God!

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Many people are under the assumption that any form of mathematics beyond an understanding of basic foundational level is not a necessity. Additionally, some have developed phobias associated with mathematics that lead to an almost hatred and avoidance of Algebra, Geometry, Statistics and other forms of  higher computation and logical problem solve methods. Yet, most Academic programs require at least Algebra or Statistics for Graduation. The Basis is for Algebra and other forms of mathematics allow an individual to bridge the gap between logic and reason and even to understand abstract concepts. Bass mentions, Math forms the foundation of all sciences (Bass, 2012) and may be the basis for all communication and thus is the language of the universe itself.

One can even make the claim that the never changing-changing mind, body and Spirit of The All Knowing, All Present, All Powerful God is ever reacting to a multitude of probabilities and an infinite number of possibilities which can best be expressed simply as,  “All things are possible through Christ ( Phil. 4:14). If we were to express this in a mathematical way Possibility is thus greater than or equal to probability but only to one who abides in Christ in faith – mercy and grace.

Stephen Hawkins is credit for his believe of “The Theory of Everything” in which he in a lifetime both proved and disproved the existence of God. In reality when one studies the later work and Hawkins’ work in its entirety one can conclude what Hawkins is, stating is that all life originated from an intelligent point that transcends time, space, all dimension and even nonexistence. Thus, for something to be everything, it must also include and transcend nothingness.

Additionally, Hawkins placed this intellectual entity in a central location in the dome that encompasses the entire universe and every dimensions. Finally, this deduction is similar to most of the near-eastern creation primordial concepts of creation most anthropological theories including those of the three monotheistic religions, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity.

From the Judo-Christian, prospective God created the world in seven days. However, some debate whether this is the actual first creation of our planet or whether it is a reforming of creation after an initial creation attempt. The first creation theory in Genesis 1 views the First Earth as a realm for the fallen angels that was created then became inhospitable in reaction to the revolt and expulsion of Lucifer as a result of pride and a desire to become God. The Seven-Day creation process may even be merely a blueprint or literary device to explain the forming and filling of the universe (Boyd & Eddy, 2009, pp. 70-97).

The use of the number 7 in Scripture or a variant such as 70 refers to life or creation whereas 3 refers to the persona or aspects of God, the trinity. One refers to God universally the Great I AM. Moreover, four can be seen to represent the cross. Many believe the top position to represent Heaven (Father), the Bottom to be Earth (even Satan, for some Humanity or Adam), and the sides to be Son and Spirit.

Eight is the number of infinity, nine in some sects of Christianity and Judaism represents adversary, the devil, or evil and six is the number of man. Seven-Seven-Seven is the Holy number in some sects as well representing the number of God. Additionally, many reference the seven seals within Revelation and the seven signs and wonders of Christ while other refer to 8 seals and miracles of Christ (Gospel of  John) depending on dogma and doctrine.

Finally, when God speaks 3 times it should be seen as all aspects of the trinity speaking or appearing and it is not a coincidence that many people need to hear things at the least 3 times to learn new task or skills.

“Mathematics within exercises of commerce is  a means to integrity which honors the Lord (Lev 19:35-36)”, Jesus however did warn against the evil of greed and unscrupulous business deals, think of the Statement of not being able to serve Two Master in Matt. 6:24 and the Parable of the Shrewd Manager in Luke 16: 1-15 NIV.

The Book of Acts views, ministry via proximity as first to the Jews then to the Gentiles. Thus, While Acts does speak of evangelism beginning where one is physically present and then sojourning to the Ends of the Earth.  If one studies The Book of Acts, the historical, cultural and theological concepts within the various missionary Journeys of Paul and others that God elected, or sent for to witness to the world as his servants from and to distant lands will become clear. Furthermore, both Paul and Peter remind us that we are to consider ourselves Ambassadors of Christ and that this world is not our home. Even Jesus reminds us the wind blows freely as it choices to do so and additionally that one must come to know Him by their own free volition.

Thus, from measurements for building the Ark, to the temple to the various rods and even the geology numbers hold a place of distinction of prominence within the Bible and the history, present and future of humanity.

Besides being useful to classify and quantify things, mathematics is a universal language all machines and all creatures communicate using codes. The basic form is the binary system a simple relay code of “on and off” or “ones and zeros that tell neurons to fire or switches to fire. The earliest of scientist and mathematicians from the Hebrews Arabs and well into the 19th century used math to prove and not disprove God. Even Sir Francis Bacon and Newton were Christians as was Galileo and many other great minds including Thomas Jefferson.

“If we do not find satisfaction in God we will seek it elsewhere (Beth, et al., 2003).” Thus, we become slaves to in subsistence or a life substitute of living (Beth, et al., 2003). The basic concept in subsisting living one becomes a beggar and lives off the affections of another to fill what only God can supply. Additionally, we may become thieves and steal the affections and even time and possessions of others. The concept of substitution is when we create idols of people, place or things, thus placing hang-ups, hold-ups or habits before Christ. Our reliance must come from him and all we do and live for must be for the Glory of God and the prosperity of his Eternal Kingdom (Beth, et al., 2003).

The relationship of this to math can be expressed simply in a math as 1*0=0 or reliance on, in and by an individual on false things = nothing. “For The Wages of Sin is Death ( Roman 6:23) or “Life is meaningless under the Sun (Theme of Ecclesiastes)” in either perspective no matter how hard one works or  how moral one is all are sinners and only can be justified and redeemed by Christ( Rm: 1-8).

The verse I draw most of my strength from in times of crisis is, “Whom Shall I Fear (Ps 27:1, Rm 8:31-40).” While the actual verse is in Psalms, the concept is further developed in Romans, which states as Champions of Christ No Power of this world or Spirit World can harm us.  Once in Christ one is in Christ, we made struggle even suffer, but in the end when we live for his glory and in his love since he is love and we express this love to everyone and everything we all will succeed. We are more than conquerors we are inheritors and citizens of the Kingdom being reborn in his exact Image How amazing and magnificent this Blessed Assurance is and eternal destiny unimaginable.

While math may not hold all the answer of God or even to ones’ worldview it is certainly a tool that can help build and shape a better tomorrow and understand one’s past.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1338

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References

Bass, A. (2012). Math Is Useless. In A. Bass, Math Study Skills (1st ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Beth, M., Briscoe, J., Wilson, S. D., Hart, K., Hager, D., Wells, T., & LaHaye, B. (2003). A Women and Her God: Life Enriching Messages: Extraordinary women. Brentwood: Integrity Publishers (AACC).

Boyd, G. A., & Eddy, P. R. (2009). Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology. (2nd, Ed.) Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.

 

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Addressing Body Image in Children & Teens

Various media sources may influence one’s perception of the ideal self, or the aspirations and perceptions of others and self, regarding qualities and characteristic of personal value; and thus have a correlating role in the development of one’s thoughts, feelings, and overall judgement or self-worth or one’s self-esteem (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). The actualized image, or real self-concept, is partially predetermined before birth by one’s unique biogenetic composition. Additionally,  spiritual-evolutionary factors designed before the beginning of time and formed in the womb  play a role in the determination of the actualized self-image (Ps 51) .The real-self and ideal- self is further determined by a lifelong relationship with family, peers and society and host of external environmental variables of culture and creation (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

One’s reactions within a crisis and the ability or inability to adapt, cope, and overcome the various occurrences of both positive and the negative consequential influences of the mental, physical, emotional, spiritual and social variables shapes the image in the  development of all people (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). This ongoing developmental-stage is fostered by the presence and / or absence of nurturing (love), by modeling (imitation of characteristics and abilities), learning (acquisition of knowledge), (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014)and discernment through experience and wisdom which often must be gained with cautious & prudent investigation and assessment of past present and future motivation and intention (Prov. 8:12 NIV). While any characteristic, ability, value, or virtue is based on one’s quality of experience, additionally it may be measured by normative statistics forming a generalized baseline for a particular group within each subculture or culture in a given specified region or ethical people group (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Thus, when an abnormal measurement is obtained the deviant value may indicate a radical element, or a variable that is in opposition to the normative standard to the social normative. However, such a deviation may simply indicate eccentricity, innovation or an evolutionary adaption. Per se, even terms such as right and wrong, good and evil, pretty, ugly, fat and thin, will vary from culture to culture, place to place, and even within the proximity of time (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

On matters of cultural differences and identity, The Apostle Paul addresses the issue of what is more appropriate; righteousness, being moral, or just – following the Law and the social normative standards of culture and society. In Romans 15 Paul concludes, “Faith is not a matter of being moral or conforming to ritualism, religion, or obligation to any form of the Law, but rather that a life lived in obligation in faith brings glory to God. Rather, love and worship is about endurance and perseverance in the exercise and discipline of faith.  Furthermore, we should conduct ourselves in a manner as Christ did by encouraging and building up each other through acceptance, in hope, unity with grace, and in mercy. Our faith is thus not based on any works of law or deeds of morality but faith forms the basis of living in accordance to the workings of the law and the virtues of God. Finally, God writes morality on each person’s heart and the interaction of the individual within the community through the intercession of the Holy Spirit forms the hope that leads to and encourages the development of faith. The weak, or those whom are subjected to the authoritarian principles of the Law and the free-willed moralist should not let their pride cast judgment on one another but rather work together for the glory of the Kingdom of Heaven ( Rom 15: 1-7 NIV).”

James similarly states this message, “As Work without faith is dead as well as faith without works is meaningless. For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead (Jas 2: 14:25 HCSB).”

When counseling parents or caregivers on methodology to aid in identity issues, such as issues pf body image it is important to remind those we teach that Jesus regarded all with unconditional acceptance and love.  Our self- worth and significance is defined only in and through living in faith and our attempts to model actions, thoughts and feelings that are attributed to the mind and heart of Christ ( Phil 1-6 NIV).

Additionally we all are given unique talents, attributes, and abilities before birth, but our thoughts, feelings and reactions influence our behaviors and our  perspective on identity, Thus are image concepts are both on a personal and social level and additionally intrinsically given by God. (Rom 12).

Our pride serves as the basis for all motivation, drive and intentions, which leads to our reactions and interactions with all creation. Pride also is the basis of every transgression and sin and even our best intentions to serve the law and act morally may corrupted by sin leading to our separation or death from God (Rom 1:8 NIV).

True freedom and our redemption from slavery, our justification of worth and citizenship as heirs to the Kingdom, and our salvation is not solely our own making but primarily comes from profession, acceptance, and conformity to the ways of the Spirit and dying to the ways of the flesh or worldly desires.

In loving servitude as stewards to God in every action and interaction as ambassadors, we trudge fourth in the blessed assurance on our path of restoration in the Likeness of Christ. We seek to embrace other in peace, hope, joy and love building disciples as we spread the message to a fallen world awaiting the return of our Savior King.

Many studies have indicated anything from the toys that girls play with such a Barbie (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014)to the physic appearances and attitudes of characters in children’s movies help form the basis of body image, ideal self and self -worth.  Even Disney movies often portray females as pretty but fragile and weak and in need of saving by the strong heroic masculine figure, or depict woman as evil witches,  or it’s is ok for women to give up on dreams, talents or ambitions or even to be of lower intellect as long as she is beautiful. For everyone knows beauty is the most desired trait by every prince (Beth, et al., 2003).

Although the media may influence the development of body image through advertisement and product placement of unhealthy foods that may lead to obesity in some individuals (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). The exaggeration or overemphasis on certain desirable physical and social attributes in characters in movies, books and other forms of media and the promotion of certain moral, political, or other social values plays less of a role on identity development.

God created all of us uniquely (Ps. 51 NIV) has a multitude of plans for each of us (Jer.  29:11 NIV), has given humanity freewill and guidance under the Law to become virtuous, and in addition “God knows every hair on our head (Luke 12:7 NIV) and the thought within our minds and desires of each of our Hearts (1 Pt. 3: 3-4 NIV),”

Yet, although God loves all people unconditionally in our election we must chose to profess believe in the substitutive  love- offering that freed  us from the bondage of Sin and grants us our citizenship and restoration and redemption to the Image of Christ and coheirs of the Kingdom of Heaven through our obedience living in and by faith. Thus, our identity rest in Christ alone and is strengthened by our transformation of heart and mind and the aided by and in our conformity to the Holy Spirit and death to flesh, or worldly desires (Rom. 6, 8, 12-15 NIV).

The main influence on identity is one’s peer and family reactions and interactions. Thus, the best strategy to aid in both establishing a secure attachment style and identity is to model and scaffold thoughts, feelings and actions that encourage both independence and compliance to authority (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). By empowering and inspiring principles of communal cooperation, respect for others, dignity, diversity and unity while teaching unconditional positive regard and biblical relevancy and truth one can begin the lifelong transformation process into the identity of Christ. The end result is the attainment of unity of mind, body, soul and Spirit, the relief of all creation from the pangs of suffering and death, and a new freedom found only as citizens and heirs in the New Kingdom of Heaven (Rom 12-15, Phil 1-6, 1 Cor 12, 1 Cor 13, 2 Tim 3:16 NIV).

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1427

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

 

 

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Early Childhood Education

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The Montessori Method is an empirical style of learning in which children develop at their own pace using a variety of developmental and age appropriate tasks in a systematic fashion. The Montessori Method utilizes instructors and fellow classmates as mentors and additionally, the classroom is structured to provide a soothing and orderly environment to promote positive and harmonious growth for all participants in the program.   In this educational style, natural learning theories involve principles of rationale, spiritual and foundational learning are combined and although the curriculum follows a specific path each student helps shapes the focus and progress thus determining the outcome or growth of each student and the class. (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Reggio Emilia, a less formative model that focuses on each individual’s unique interests by encouraging the exploration of creative ideas, thoughts, feelings and interactions. The abilities, talents, and skills are developed using drama, music, free-play through music, and free-expression in words, poetry and the arts in respect for the development one’s diverse needs and abilities of each student. Other methods of learning also are less formal and structured to encourage creativity, unique expression and other forms of abstract and post conventional thinking and expression (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

In both methods above locomotive play is incorporated with structured learning. However, in Reggio Emilia the arts are embraced, as is the development of individualism and free expression (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Additionally, the method tends to favor more of a qualitative approach focusing on aspects and stages rather than on quantity as in other methods, which focus on basic foundational skills of language and mathematics taught on repletion and social normative standards (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

In Montessori language, math, free play, and values and elements of spirituality are incorporated into a structured program with the child setting the limits and progression and both teachers and students acting as coaches and mentors in more a symbolic or communal setting (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Other learning methods exist within Early Education but tend to focus more on either the development of the basic standardized skills of mathematics, language, and the social normative skills defined by a particular society, or focus on free play. Additionally some methods use a combination of the two standards above.

What is deemed appropriate or best for one child may or may not work for every child. For although learning tends to follow normative patterns in regards to cognitive, social and biological development and the means in which each individual acquire information is determined by one’s environment and experiences (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Our unique experiences, consequences and the various ways we all develop and incorporate and process information through perception of our senses and the theory of our mind differs, as does the influence of culture and subculture and that of our worldview. Additionally any challenges derived from evolution itself has a positive or negative correlation to one’s growth rate (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

As to which model is best suited for Early Childhood Learning it depends on the particular developmental needs of a child. Each individual has different cognitive, social and other developmental needs, strengths and weaknesses and cannot easily be determined simply by either biological, social, environmental or any other factors. As such, the best learning center would offer various learning methods with strategies tailored to meets the multiple complexity of needs of the diverse populous they serve and the variety of interests, virtues, vices and such they may encounter as they prepare the minds and hearts of our future generation to serve and glorify God. Thus, the best center should offer programs suited with combination of methods or a holistic/eclectic blending of developmental-learning theories to help shape the future of the mind, bodies, hearts and souls of the leaders of tomorrow.

For although God created all People in his Image (Gen 1:27). Each of us were created before time, space and Creation began unique yet similar or universal in form (Ps 51). Furthermore, all of us are called to serve various plans in our various stages of life for the prosperity and Glory of God (Jer. 29:11).  This election which is to build, equip and baptize Disciples in Faith in the preparation for the return of our Savior-King during the Second Coming Jesus will bring final restoration of all people of faith. Furthermore, the result is the restoration of all creatures and all creation from the penalty of death that is the result of Sin and return humankind to Holistic Oneness in Mind-Body-Spirit in the likeness of Christ (Premise of Gospel of Romans).

“Blessed are the Children and Cursed be to any whom wish to harm them or cause them to fall, Be like them in their innocence and inherit the Kingdom of Heaven ( Matt. 18: 1-9, Matt. 19: 14-15).” For “We shall all start children off on The Way they should go, and even when they are old they will not turn from it (Pr. 22:6 NIV).”

Whitney Houston proclaims, “I believe the children are our future. Teach them well and let them lead the way. Show them all the beauty they possess inside. Give them a sense of pride to make it easier. Let the children’s laughter remind us how we used to be (Masser & Creed, 1984).” By, embracing, the similarity and building on the unique needs of each child while instilling a understand of unity, diversity and moral and legal understanding educators’ and parents’ shape the future of tomorrow’s leaders and help build lay the foundation of peace, hope, faith and love that will bring assurance, joy and prosperity in generations to come.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 994

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Masser, M., & Creed, L. (1984). Greatest Love of All [Recorded by W. Houston]. On Whitney Houston [Compact Disc]. New York, New York, United Staes: Sony.

 

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FEED MY SHEEP!

Undernutrition: Feeding the hungry

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Undernutrition is a global-pandemic that results in 50% of fatalities in children under five and in addition, 17% of families with children under the age of 18 experience food shortages or food insecurities in the United Sates alone (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). The consequences of this plight include but are not limited to, impaired physiological growth, cognitive impairment, emotional and social imbalances. The result of this crisis includes such effects as lower reasoning abilities and negative socio-interaction skills, verbal and spatial ability impairment, and other memory-associated tasks deficiencies (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Yet this social-economical-political-cultural-physiological and even environmentally influenced globally devastating disease is both preventable and curable.

The problem of undernutrition is not a new pandemic. Acts 6 and act 11 address this issue with in the Church as well as this plight is illustrated in the story of Joseph in the Old Testament.  The question of many is what role the Church, or The Universal Body of Followers of Christ, may play in preventing and eliminating this pandemic. First, let us examine how the Early Church approached this crisis

Genesis 41 and 42 details a  prediction of the  coming of 7 year of abundance in the fields In Egypt followed by a famine and the necessity of storing of the grain to prepare for the upcoming crisis. The events that follow in Genesis 41 and 42 lead to Joseph’s appointment as an emissary and ambassador in Egypt and the provision of aid to Israel to his brothers’ who sold him into captivity. This illustrates the need for all people, the Church, and all Nations to come together regardless of differences and conflicts, to forgive disagreements, and seek to coexist and work in unity to eliminate global threats such as the pandemic of world hunger.

In Acts 6, seven deacons or elders were chosen to make sure the daily food ration that was collected from the congregation was equally disbursed among Gentiles and Jews within the Church and community. An argument arose that only those decent “Law-Biding and respectable believers of Pure Jewish Ethnicity” would either receive the rations first, or were entitled to benefits. The Apostles appointed the committee to ensure all people received an equal share and to free the ministers to meet the obligations of evangelism and maintaining other Spiritual needs within the community (Acts 6).

This passage shows the necessity of the church to provide resources both of a monetary and commodity nature (food / shelter and clothing) to help combat hunger and assist in other needs in times of crisis.  Additional committees or relief organization may be organized of committees of mature and rationally sound and Spiritual grounded individuals to act in the administration and distribution of other humanitarian relief efforts.  Finally, Acts 6 illustrates that aide is not to be given or denied based on privilege or status, but to be equal disbursed to all people and conflicts shall be negotiated by use of peaceful conflict resolution methods.

Acts 11:27-30 is the depiction of a prophecy of a Great Famine that will effect Jerusalem and much of the South Asia and how the Universal Church will need to take up special offerings and consolidate resources to help provide relief for the region. The famine occurred as predicted in the time of Claudius and the Church provided food, clothing and other resources as an act of humanitarian aid to all people through the Mother Church in Jerusalem.

Building on this historical model the church in times of crisis or whenever a need is present shall provide resources through the collection of food, clothing and other items to meet special needs and shall help supplement ongoing humanitarian relief efforts through the provision of workers or financial support to humanitarian efforts, whether they are secular, or religious in nature.

Undernutrition is the underlying cause for physical, emotional, psychological and social dysfunction and kills 50% of children under the age of five (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). One of the major factors of world hunger is poverty and improper management of resources or pure greed. A few final suggestions are for individuals, corporation and other affluent organizations to cut back on extravagant and unessential needs. By simplify living, donating surplus items, food or of other commodities or even one’s time, all may assist in the fight against world hunger, poverty and other socio-political-environmental crimes affecting all of humanity because of mankind’s sin.

Other options to help prevent and eventually eliminate food shortages and undernutrition includes, programs that promote financial management skills, establishment or support of food banks, participation in environment protection efforts and training in efficient farming practices, and finally awareness of the value of proper diet, hygiene and exercise. Furthermore, the church should educate and support programs on universal humanitarian efforts, the overall necessity of sanctity of all life, and even the importance of immunization

Monetary contributions by individuals and donations of percentages of profits by corporate entities or even an increase in taxation to help those who are less fortunate as well as reforms in areas such as affordability of medical assistance and or free medical coverage will benefit the populous in all areas of help and enable growth.Even a reduction prices or provision of assistance with the basic essential living commodities such as, food, shelter, medicine and clothing also may prove to be a viable option worldwide.

While some doctrines and dogmas of churches focus on spreading the truth or the message of Jesus it is equally or even more important to practice and spread the discipline and message of love. In Being Jesus and assisting in the meeting of needs, one may plant more abundantly fertile seeds than merely proclamation of truth as many people who have turned away from God have done so out of a belief and feeling of betrayal because of unmet needs. In being Christ like Love can lead to trust and then truth providing the freedom from suffering and death that on Christ can deliver.

In going beyond prayer, giving and providing for needs is essential. To paraphrase Jesus’s Greatest Command In Matthew 28:16 “All Glory and Worship or One’s Thoughts, feelings and Actions and who we are and what and to whom we belong to  is  based on the capstone of Christ and the foundation of Love.

Thus, “It is all about the Love.” “First, “Unto God and then to others and finally to self from which obligation in and by faith leads to obedience to all the Law.” This in turns reveals our purpose or truth our very nature and virtue of being in Christ-mindedness and Likeness (Phil 1-6) and brings about a plethora of blessing for both the individual and the community.

Finally, in the giving of the diversified yet unified flavored Spiritual Gift bestowed upon the believer by and in the Holy Spirit for the transformity and conformity of God’s Divine Purpose of Kingdom restoration and fulfillment. Through our justification, redemption and in our salvation, we all become free from the penalty of Sin and Death and become equally significant and secure citizens unified in community, kinship and Oneness with God and community. Upon the return of Christ, we will become fully united and transformed to our rightful image, in union with creation itself and in likeness and in distinction with Jesus living in harmony with all people and all creation (Gal 5, Rom 1-15).

Erik Erikson states, trust is formed by the ability to have access to the provision of one’s need by caregivers or individuals or people of authority (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). When authority figures fail to act responsibly or when needs are not met people experience betrayal, loss of  faith and even blame God or total reject of the notion of the existence of spirituality or divinity may become present in individual’s or society.  The most effective evangelical method with many of restoring hope, trust, and faith that then leads to assurance and finally the ability to comprehend and distinguish truth is by assisting and providing needs and in nurturing or counseling emphatically to one’s thoughts, feelings and action with positive regard and in a manner of love.

Healing and hope is regained by being and showing love, ministering to needs, and when/if, the person is ready in proclaiming the Gospel. However, the Good-News often is most effectively communicated in other manners using general references from everyday life but is best expressed first through patience, kindness compassion and respect for one’s uniqueness, diversity in the spirit of unity and through hope and above all else unconditional love.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1438

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

 

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Information Security:

Methods & Children

&

Overcoming Bullies

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Cyber-bullying is defined as, ” the posting of malicious comments or offensive photos to victimize another on a website, the sending of derogatory texts, or the use of any form of media with the intention to cause harm (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014), has become a fairly common place. Bullying in general is simply a form of abuse and may include neglect, teasing, social isolation, slander, derogatory comments, and even physical or sexual harm (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Abuse and neglect often is a blend of a multiplicity of compounds of sexual, physical, verbal, economic and social variables and as such, neglect and abuse has long lasting affects to all properties of development. The long lasting effect of abuse range from dysfunction and distress in cognitive and emotional abilities to behavioral issues and physical ailments (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Even feelings of betrayal the inability to form long lasting relationship and negative spiritual consequence such as feeling unloved or abandoned by God and in some cases even concluding that God does not exist are common.

The most effective cure for victims of bullying and betrayal is to aid in the reestablishment of trust and one’s Actualized –identity. The  first step often begins by the expression of empathy, compassion and love in conjunction with meeting unmet needs while help the wounded friend realize, forgive and release without retaliation and then to love past transgressors,  accepting hold-ups and habits and flaws within the other person and self.

Additionally, upon becoming willing the individual should receive the message of the Good News that Jesus is the foundation and Way to Freedom. Thus, it is not a matter of effort or any moral deed that will produce happiness or prosperity and peace or one’s salvation.

After receiving such a revelation. The next step is to instruct the curious and convinced believer in the Gospel. In the process of building -up a Disciple through imitation of action and instruction on spiritual disciplines through modeling and scaffolding the wounded friend learns to walk the path that brings new freedom and reestablishes faith, hope and trust. This allows the individual realization that one’s significance or what we are about and do, and additionally that ones’ security, or whom we belong to and who shall provide and protect us, is found only in our Lord- Jesus Christ.

In our continual growth aided by the Holy Spirit, who comforts and inspires us, and through serving the Father, The Great I Am or that, which is the existence of everything, we trudge through life in worshipful glory in all our thoughts, thinking and actions. Thus, as we attempt to align our will and hearts with his purposes as we serve the various plans as we are called as “Ambassadors of the Kingdom of Heaven” (2 Cor. 5:20:21, 1 Pt. 2 NIV).

While the use of technology and the internet can be, a useful tool for cognitive and social development from early childhood onward (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014) the context must be monitored as well media content to safeguard against predators, bullying and other malicious intent or harm. Most devices have the ability to enable built in content filters, set up secondary log on accounts, and password protect settings based on a recommended age normative rating scale.  Additionally computers, tablets and other devices that have access to the internet should be monitored or the devices may be used in common areas to ease the ability of parents and guardians with the ability in safeguarding children against unwanted activity.

As a former owner of an information technology and security consulting firm I and have training in internet security and various hardware and firmware although it is a bit out of date by current guidelines, as I have switched my professional focus. However, through hacking, spoofing of location, and other means, cameras and one’s own system, network and information may be used against unsuspecting users for the malicious intent or profit and unfortunately, predators often do so frequently in the case of children and youths (Rindoks, 2016)

Thus, Parents should have easy access to the passwords of social media sites, and in addition, the use of third party content filtering software, anti- malware, anti spyware and other security measures should be in place on all devices. Further steps such as disabling or covering of cameras when not in use, checking, and emptying cache and history folders help safeguard privacy of all users (Rindoks, 2016).

Another suggestion is for children never to post their age, physical location, or other demographic information as predators may use such data to target victims. Additionally one should use caution when posting photos. Predators and criminals in general use pictures and other forms of data that reveal location leading to a variety of crimes from burglary to abuse. Thus, in the profile for youths less personal information is always the best policy. Although information security measures are important to safeguard against identity theft and predators it is also easy to become a techno-phobic and overly protect a system resulting in network or computer that does not perform effectively (Rindoks, 2016).

Finally, parents must learn to trust their children and possibly the best policy is to teach awareness and virtues and values coupled with Biblical truth, dignity and above all empathy, compassion and love ( 1 Cor. 13). It is easy to have a desire to overprotect, overindulge, or even over control hose we love. Either out of our own insecurities, our own past issues or fears of harm to self or others in present and future circumstances.

However, true freedom comes in the loving grace and Mercy of Christ and thus, “All anxiety and care should be cast on his loving shoulders” (1 Pt. 5:7). “For if God is for us whom shall we fear” (Ps. 27:1, Rom. 8:31, Heb. 13:6 NIV).

 

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 980

 

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Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Rindoks, T. (2016). The influence of Media and Young Children. PSYCH 221: Db 4 Reply. TN: Liberty University.

 

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The influence of Media and Young Children

The influence media plays in development in youths is a controversial topic. Critics claim that television, video games, social media and the internet can have detrimental effects on emotional, mental, physical and social growth (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).  Advocates of technology cite that media improves motor skills, cognitive awareness and allows children to engage with people of other cultures outside of their society and provides access to a wealth of information beyond the confines of their localized environment. Additionally, critics also claim media increases aggressive behavior and has the potentiality to expose children to vulgar or unsuitable material not appropriate for either their developmental level or moral development.

Furthermore, some parents choice to make television and other technology a surrogate caregiver and in doing so deprive children of nurturing and social interaction that plays a vital role maturation (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

In regards to potential health risks television and electronic devices emit blue radiation that studies have proven prolonged exposures can cause damage to the eyes and disturb sleep. It is wise either to limit the time spent using such devices or to take frequent breaks when using devices to curb such effects and to not sleep with television or computer monitors on. Additionally, people who engage in excessive use of technology and do not have a regular fitness plan or engage in physical activity are prone to obesity, coronary disease, a higher degree of stress and a host of complications depending on the risk factors of each individual and the influence of genetics and association of environment hazards.

While video games improve motor skills and cognitive awareness in children over the age of three (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014), certain content may increase aggressive behavior depending on stress level and temperament and prolonged exposure can decrease social interaction skills.

Additionally, prolonged exposure can limit cognitive development and memory skills. Studies have found a dependency on media has caused the average concentration rate to drop to around 6-8 seconds because of media in most people. In addition, a decline in literacy rates and syntax errors in speech and writing may be the result of texting and social media.

Sexual predation and bullying are often first initiated over social media and the internet. However, predators in general will seek out children in any environment frequented by this group. Thus, in the case of media the best safeguards is to have access to passwords, to use content filters, and check the posts and interactions of youths to protect from unwanted activity. Most, televisions and audio visional equipment are equipped with content filters and password protection for settings. Additionally, computers, cellphones and tablets should be protected with content filtering software, anti malware protection, password protection and if the devices are in the bedroom of youths cameras should be disabled or covered up with electrical tape when not in use to stop from unwanted spying as these accessories can be enabled remotely by hacking.

How much is too much media time?  After conducting a review of the effects of media, “The American Pediatric Committee on Public Education discourages the use of television by any child under the age of two, rather the committee encourages in cognitive and social activities such as talking, sing, and reading (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).”  The data found toddlers spend an average of approximately of 2 hours watching television alone. Yet Youths in general spend more time engaged in the use of media than sleeping spending between 6-9 hours fixated with technological devices. The average child should sleep about hours a day, attend school for approximately 8 hours and engage in physical activity or exercise for about an hour a day. Furthermore, all people benefit from positive social interaction or quality time of approximately 3 hours a day and additionally children’s time will be spent on completing homework and helping with family chores for about hours daily, this would only leave 2 hours for media related endeavors. Granted time management and the amount of sleep could allow for an increase in media time as well as the time spent exercising may be decreased to around 30-45 minutes; however, the time spent for media engagement would still be approximately hours.

Does media have a positive or negative correlation in development? The correlation depends on the frequency of exposure, the type of content, the temperament and personality of the individual as well as how the family interacts and perceives media in general.

A further suggest is to use all forms of media as an educational tool and a form of group dynamic model. By including the whole family in the media education process and using the same methods one would use when reading such as, “introducing the theme and asking follow-up questions, encouraging the participants to explore the depth of the content matter,  and/or describing the relevancy to one’s own thoughts, feeling action, situation or circumstances.  Finally, discuss any social values and Virtues, or Spiritual truth, gained in the message. Knowledge and wisdom can be gained that will lead to growth through the media experience. Additionally, this fosters development of listening and communication skills as well as cognitive and social development (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).”

Although, individuals possess innately unique abilities, traits, and talents and learn at a different duration and frequency.  Most cognitive, emotional, social, physical and spiritual development occurs within a normative range. The theories of Piaget, Erikson, and those of Vygotsky are considered as baseline by some and questioned by others; observation of children and people in general couple with one’s own experience as well as Biblical Scripture confirms that life develops in stages (Eccl 3) (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Yet, Life also is an ongoing process (Ps 51, Rom 3-8, Rev 20).

What is most evident from all studies conducted is prolonged exposure poses significant risk to physical, cognitive, emotional and social development and detracts from social interaction and nurturing (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).  Both nurturing and social engagement coupled with genetics form the cohesive bond of necessity in maturation in all stages of development and through ones temporal lifespan as we trudge the road toward the Narrow Gate toward Eternity with and in Oneness with our Creator.

“He changes times and seasons; he deposes kings and raises up others. He gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to the discerning (Dan 2: 21 NIV).” Thus, God, initiates maturation, and eliminates bullies and Authoritarians, bullies and those whom to bring discord to society. This is done so by the Gift of Wisdom and Knowledge given to the mature and wise people who know and teach his ways. These parents, mentors, and leaders pass down experience, knowledge and wisdom to the children and students of future generations for the purpose of his discerning virtue and truth and the prosperity of all people and the fulfillment of God’s Divine Purpose through his various plans for each person given in stages throughout all Eternity and our life cycle within creation.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1126

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

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A Biblical Perspective on Parental Relationships

In Deuteronomy 4, the focus is the obedience and teaching of the commands of God to one’s family and within society. Deuteronomy 6 focus on Loving God and proclaiming the Blessing giving by him to others so all people may come to know, worship, serve, and glorify him.  In correlation, both passages form the basis of moral and legal truth.

In Deuteronomy 4:1-9 God commands his people to obey his laws for in doing so will yield the fruits of his spirit or virtue and provide wisdom and understanding allowing Israel to be a beacon of hope and a blessing to all ethos or people and attract others to “The Way and Truth of God.”  Furthermore, this is to be done so in a communal and discipline fashion using communication and meditation and without cohesion a blessed gift to be given only to those who wish to receive it. However, it is the parents’ responsibility to equip (scaffold-teach) and through righteous living transmit (model) the children the ways of the Law (recorded directive of conduct) and Virtues of God (Morality/ mannerism of heart).

Deuteronomy 6: 4- 9 deals with the principle of teaching morality and conduct. Simply stated, God commands parents to teach and communicate his commands and the Way of Love of all things through righteous living. This is an active -reactive process of obedience of living in and by faith as a love servant of God is for his Glory to all things and all things.  God’s Sovereign, inclusive -redemptive plan for all creation and all humanity. This plan of justification and restoration is available to all who wishes to choose to follow and live under his guidance and authority receiving the gift of total transformation from death and freedom from the bondage of the slavery sin and the consequence of depravity, suffering, and hostility.

The Commandments, or the directives of God, form the foundational framework to illuminate and educate all people in matters of ethical conduct both personally and in society to a standard that is equivocal to the Virtues or nature of God himself and thus forms the basis of decency and morality. This Moral code’s capstone is in unity and love. First love and trust in and to God. Then to everyone else regardless of any belief, ethnicity, of and variable of culture. Certain immoral actions were considered unlawful under Judaic Law and thus, under such a system of belief, originally works and/or deed alone determined the fate for all humanity.

However, freedom, decency and morality is in part achieved through the active- reactive process of mutual compromise, forgiveness and repentance which was and is done under the guidance and direction of mentors and counselors but additionally must be accomplished by the inter-working of faith and the Holy Spirit.

Furthermore, only by Jesus’ gracious and merciful atonement on The Jesse Tree and his Resurrection- Ascension all are reconciled and justified as citizens of Heaven and become children of equivocal status, significant worth and distinction once one is given Freedom in Christ (Gal 5). This choice is always subjective to the process of faith that forms in the individual becoming curious, then convince and finally committed that the Penalty of Sin is Death and the Way of the Spirit is the only means of living.

The Way, or path of truth , Christ-mindedness and  Christian Living ( Phil 1-6, Rom 12-15) can best be qualified as an active yet reactive  process of modeling of moral action and the use of teaching through scaffolding, Operant Learning and Socio-cognitive methodologies  and many other learning theories coupled with nurturing or the expression of love (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

In regards to the role of each respective parent both play a part in nurturing and equipping a Child throughout life. Yet, the role of each is often unique and varies from culture to culture and even among subcultures within people groups of similar societies and nations.

Additionally the environment including every person we interact with as well as our own views influence development of our temperament, disposition, worldview and every aspect of development with possibly a few exemptions such as our God given innate personality and certain biological aspects( Ps. 139) that cannot be modified (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Thus, although we as People are create similarly we also all are unique. All people are made in the Image of God and called to be in a relationship with him and additionally to serve him as mangers as contributors and innovators of the Earth (Gen 1). All of creation was formed before Time- Space and our Biosphere existed and thus, was fashioned in the secret or Holy Place of Heaven (Ps. 139). Furthermore, all knowledge is inspired by God and existed with God before time began (Ps. 139, 2 Tim. 3:16).

Finally, God’s Plan is to redeem all Humanity from our self-centered driven intentions, actions and desires which leads towards a wretched sinful nature and our separation from God or death. In the process of sanctified –faith and grace in holiness  God restores us all to our Glorified Likeness of Christ and ends the pang of all creation that currently is in reaction to the plight of Mankind’s’ sin.

One may endure a certain degree of hardship for the world is currently hostile towards our sinful nature. We wait and serve with hope in blessed assurance for Messiah’s returns and reigns as King over Heaven and Earth or until our temporal resurrected awaiting our restoration as Spirits in Heaven. For this is dependent on which ever may come to pass in the coming ages. For all that is certain is That Jesus is always near, change is inevitable, and at times growth is painful. Thus, we preserve with courage, faith love and joy preparing the way for the return of our Savior-King as Ambassadors and Loving Bond-servants of Christ.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count #987

 

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

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Every Person Reflects His-Story:

A Criticism of Traditional Behavioral Genetics

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The Book of Genesis illuminates how humanity is created in the Image of God. However, as a result of temptation and in the use of our freewill external forces through the leading of peer pressure of The Serpent and in our intent and action eating of The Fruit of knowledge of Good and Evil, or use of Pride, Our perfected image, or genetic composition, became corrupted. As a result, all humanity becomes vulnerable to death, and the environment turns against mankind as a reaction sin. The result of this corruption is our initial perfected holistic or completely mental, essential and spiritual presence is separated from God and all creation.

Throughout the Bible, we see a progression of diffusion of growth and decay or various struggles and loss that correlate to this continual imperfect-perfection stage growth progress. However, we also see the sovereignty of God at work in the restoration of humanity and all humanity. First expressed in the Old Testament through the various lesser messiahs such as Abraham, Moses, Melchizedek, and Boaz and in the New Testament through the teachings life examples.  Finally, this process is illuminated in the prophesized death, resurrection and ascension of Christ in which the genetic curse of Adam, or all humanity, was removed to all whom come to live in obedience in and by faith in Christ in cooperation with God through the aid of the Holy Spirit.

Faith like any other form of belief begins with curiosity, then may transform into convincing, a wavering understanding or Probability, and finally evolves into conviction or the pursuit and living in and by the possibility-probability and assurance of truth.

The Bible is in part a book of history, part a scientific journal, part a philosophical dialogue, part legal guidelines for social living, but in truth is an illustration of both the never-ending process of creation.

This Eugenic process involving in various stages required for our transformation back into the Likeness of Christ was stolen from us as a result from our initial sin of pride and involves overcoming ones’ continual transgressions as well as acceptances of shortcomings and forgiveness. The reaction of sin often produces hostility within us and in all creation around us. Furthermore, over 2/3 of the Bible is written in story form using allegory, metaphors, contextual language and such to tell of mankind and God’s  interaction and relational aspects and expectations of morality and general wisdom.

The Bible is a qualitative or an active telling of God’s Love Story for Man and his continual involvement and efforts to redeem us throughout history. His-Story and that of all men is told in stages within scripture. Ecclesiastes 3 compares life to spring, summer, fall and winter.  Finally, the Gospel is told in stages from the Birth of Jesus, to his baptism and then his death. This progressions can be further broken down in a 3 day waiting period followed by his  resurrection and finally his ascension, (after 40 days) and the sending of “His Presence, or Holy Spirit” at Pentecost ( 50 days/ during Jewish Harvest Fest).

Quantification studies seek to identify and correlate variables that exist within a subject or between issues or factors within groups, the environment, or outside individuals (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). In contrast Qualitative Methods express traits in symbols, graphs, or other forms that focus on the perception and prospective of subjects and thus tend to tell a story (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).  The weakness of a traditional behavioral genetic study whether the basis is on an individual, family, or on adoption studies or even group dynamics is it only accounts for the genetic variables and underestimates the influence of environmental forces (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).  Forces of natural origin such as virus, disease, and natural disasters, and manmade conditions such as war, famine and other concerns need to be account for.

Additionally all external environmental elements include issues of nurture, such as the amount of encouragement and love present in the household and by peers, as well as social, political, economic, spiritual and as mentioned biological and environmental crisis, and other influences of individuals, society need to be accounted for.

Finally, We evolve and attempt to coexist in peace, hope, love and joy and endure graciously in suffering awaiting our finally restoration of all creation and our assurance of retransformation in to the exactness of Christ himself for those of us striving to live obediently in faith for his glory. Awaiting the return of our Savior King and serving not Principalities or the Ways of the World but living as Ambassadors of the Way and Stewards and Citizens and Ambassadors of the Kingdom of Heaven.

In defense of the genetic view or Nature. All of us inherit recessive and dominate genes that determine certain bio-socio-cognitive-emotional traits and the potentiality or certain innate abilities and disabilities (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). Yet, there is merit to the oppositional view of those who support a view towards more of an extrinsic-environmental or nurture based approach.as many of these inborn traits must be activated by external forces whether of physical or of a metaphysical nature (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

The traditional methods of qualitative studies tend to focus on genetic traits and at times can overemphasis environment variables.  Whereas quantitative studies focus on thoughts, feelings and other reactions and often are obtained from self-reporting methods, simple observation, and as such are subject to a certain degree of bias by either the subject, the environment or the observer / tester or other forms of bias (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Thus, to gain full comprehension of people and culture one should use a combination of both types of research method.  This form of analysis, or critical thinking, involves abstraction, logic and reason. Additionally, a combination of theories and methods should form the basis of a systematic model and then become the foundation of an eclectic or holist method.

The word holistic is derived from whole or wholesome, which means “completeness”. This word has origins in Old English, Greek and Latin deriving from “Holy” or “without sin”.

The Bible states, all humanity entered perfected creation before the fall (Gen. 1: 26-27) and thus will return to perfection after Christ returns and establish his Eternal Reign. This reunion and restoring of  All Creation to Oneness with God and All Humanity whom so chose to live obediently in and by faith to his Image is a unity of mind-body, soul & Spirit (Rom 6, 8, 12; 2 Cor 4; Phil 1-6; Isa 11).

Thus, Our Blessed Assurance offered and repaid by the Gracious and Merciful Sacrificial Love Offering on the Tree of Life is a gift to everyone who chooses to accept the gift, repent from Sin, walk in Christ’s Steps, practicing and living in faith and love. For true freedom is not found in works or deed of man but In Christ alone.

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1161

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References

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

 

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A Special Vessel, A Secret Place Formed from the Potter’s Wheel

All Creation is Fashioned Unique Yet Similar for The Unified Glory of God

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In Psalms 139: 14-16  God is speaking to the writer and informs him that he and all of creation was created before the existence of known time in Heaven and that man was fashioned out of the clay of the Earth each for a specific plan or design.  This purpose, which is not hidden from anyone but rather is reveled to all, is to be used to be serve his Glory in all things in every thought, feeling and action.

To fully understand this Jeremiah writes ,“’For I know the plans I have for you,’ declares the Lord, ‘plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future ( Jer. 29:11 NIV).”’ Furthermore, Jesus commissioned us all for one purpose, “Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you (Matt. 28:19-20 NIV) .” This directive is edified by but a single twofold command, “Love God with all Your Heart and Love and teach people to do the same thing for my Glory (Matt. 22: 36:40).”

When all the above verses are taken in conjunction they simply, state God has given each person a set of unique skills and the potentiality to learn specific skills and experience life for his glory.

All that we are given, think feel and experience are meant to serve his divine purpose for the restoration of creation that is the result of Mankind’s’ fallen state of Sin. However, humanity was and is justified and redeemed by the gracious and merciful love offering on the Cross-through his Only Sone Jesus Christ who will return and complete what was finished on Mount Calvary when he returns to reign as King of Heaven and Earth. Until such a time we as God’s stewards or managers of creation must prepare ourselves, others creation for his return.

Furthermore, as love can never be coerced, manipulated, or forced. Only those that chose to accept and believe are granted citizenship and the inheritance to the Kingdom of God and transformation into the exactness of Christ. All others will pay the full penalty of sin, which is total separation and death form eternal life and God himself (Premise of Gospel of Romans). Finally, each of us must do our part in maturation or growth, by renewing our heart and mind to become more like Christ (Phil.1-6, Rom. 12-15) with the aid of the Holy Spirit.

Intriguingly many draw a correlation to The Secret Place” in Psalms 139 with the womb. The traditional interpretation would be to view this as Heaven or alternatively to be within God himself at beginning of time before time began on earth during instances when God began forming but did not fill creation (Genesis 1).  However, as Adam was created after God’s initial in Genesis 1 and Humanity descended and evolved after the initial fall in the Garden this is also an accurate and relative interpretation.

As stated in Matthew 10 God values all life and all creation nothing is insignificant or unworthy in God’s eye and God loves all things unconditionally and provides for all creation with grace and mercy despite any intention, instinctive action, thought feeling or reaction.    Thus, God desires all creation for a relationship with him and all human interaction or our relationships should imitated of function in the same manner as the Trinity.

In such a dynamic the father, son and The Spirit which is viewed as the female aspect of God in some translations of scripture (The Septuagint for example)[1], each have distinct or unique duties, characteristic and personalities or qualities but are able to perform the duties or functions of the other personas office.

This form of Empowerment or interdependent relationship model respects and embraces the unique strengths and weakness of each member of a family or group and combines them into a cohesive unified element supporting diversity and unity giving strength and enabling positive growth and development for the greater good of all members of the social dynamic involved (Balswick & K, 2014).

In Matthew 10: 29-31 Jesus is addressing the issue of fear and worry. Jesus states, That God loves and addresses the needs of all his people and Children.  Additionally, Jesus emphasizes, all of his creation has worth and value.

The vision given to Peter by Christ in The Account and Gospel of Acts is often considered to be addressing the issue of Judaic dietary restrictions however, Luke recording of the account further drives this point home. The basic premise states, that God has never made nor would ever make any junk (Acts 10: 9-16).

Finally while we all are sinners having weaknesses and excessive characteristics. Some of these traits and shortcomings are innate to our nature while others develop from our interactions and reactions to people and forces outside of us. Additionally each of us have innate talents and developed strengths or skills and abilities.

Both the Prophets and Paul proclaims, “Has the potter no right over the clay, to make from the same lump one piece of pottery for honor and another for dishonor (Rom 9:21) HCSB)?” “We have this treasure in jars of clay to show that this all-surpassing power is from God and not from us.  We are hard pressed on every side, but not crushed; perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not abandoned; struck down, but not destroyed ( 2 Cor 4:7-9 NIV).” How the precious children of Zion, once worth their weight in gold, are now considered as pots of clay, the work of a potter’s hands ( Lam. 4:2!)” “Yet you, Lord, are our Father. “We are the clay, you are the potter; we are all the work of your hand (Isa. 64:8).”

Thus, each individual and creation are fashioned for different plans but serving only one purpose to live in worshipful glory for God in the Spirit of love and unity both in a quantitative manner ( Works / reactive process) and qualitative way ( deeds/ active process).  All interact, are shaped and respond to our initiate nature and nurture as we mature. (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014) In addition forces outsides of us transform us as we live in and by faith through the various continual stages of life from conception (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014) to one’s transformation- Resurrection and final restoration into the Eikōn of Christ (  Eccl. 3, Rm 8, James 1).

In God, Christ and Spirit,

Trent Rindoks

Word Count # 1167

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References

Balswick, J. O., & K, B. J. (2014). The Family. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

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[1]“If anyone loves righteousness, the products of righteousness are the virtues. For wisdom teaches self-control, discernment, righteousness and courage, Concerning which things there is nothing more valuable in the life of man. But also, if anyone longs for great experience, She knows the things of old and portrays the things to come; She understands subtlety of words and the solution of riddles; She has foreknowledge of signs and wonders, And the outcomes of times and seasons( Ws. 8:7 OSB).

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Black White or Shades of Grey: An Analysis

On The Moral Development of Children & Teens

Trenton Clark Rindoks

Liberty University

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Abstract

 This paper is an analysis and assessment of a study conducted by Ellen S. Cohn, Donald Bucolo, Cesar J. Rebellon & Karen Van Gundy and published in 2015 titled, “An Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning and Rule-Violating Behavior: The Role of Legal Attitudes (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).” Legal socialization theory is a method to predict the correlation between legal reasoning how one’s actions in regards to obedience, understanding  and conformity to rules and the law form a relationship in the role of ethics and rule violation. Moral development theory is a predictive model of an indirect and direct link of behavior and the intent and action of individuals to break rules or engage in delinquency (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). The purpose of the study is to integrate moral development, moral development and legal attitude in to a predictive model and assess and analysis the development of morality and delinquency in middle school and adolescent teens.

 

Keywords: Moral development, Moral Reasoning, Legal Reasoning, Legal Attitude,

Child & Adolescent Development, Delinquency, Ethics, Moral Identity

 

 

Black White or Shades of Grey: An Analysis

On The Moral Development of Children & Teens

Preface

The life-long process of ethics, or one’s moral evolution, is dynamic and individualistic and additionally both intrinsic and extrinsic in character. Moral identity and moral development is dependent on both physiological and environmental variables that develop over the various stages in the continual life process of all people. While most people have a symbolic self-image, or moral concept, and thus strive to serve a higher purpose for social order and common good, all people are additionally motivated in their pursuit of ethics and morality by their drive of passions and inclinations towards a particular objective or goal.  Furthermore, moral identity and ethical disposition is influenced by whether or not an action or behavior will be beneficial or harmful and in some instances by the perspective of an outcome of a similarity of past actions. This introspective viewpoint often has a significant role in how one both views the ideal self and actualized moral agent of the individual and influences present reactions and actions (Jordan, Mullen, & Murnighan, 2011).

Finally, cultural, biological, social, political and religious views also play a part in the development of morality, as does the influence of family and peers. The cultural approach uses a template to analyze the influence of autonomy, divinity and community over the lifespan of an individual. In cultures where spiritual influences are encouraged during childhood the use of scripture and the alignment to ones’ virtues of God play a role in moral development and is commonly most expressive beginning in teens when abstract cognition develops. This form of postconventional moral – legal reasoning continues to blossom throughout life with individuals reaching self-actualization or enlightenment, or a concept of integrity typically during the developmental period of middle age to late adulthood (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

If societies and families place a de-emphasis on such views, a sense of autonomy or self- interest developments often over the common good of community. This view also known as egocentric or independent places ones’ self in the highest position in the hierarchy of ethics and one has a tendency to strive for the achievement of ones wants for goals, possessions, gains over the needs of others or society (Berger, 2011). However, many who possesses such a trait tend to become effect motivators, powerful leaders and entrepreneurs (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Finally, the role the community or family, peer and society in general is determined by positive and negative experiences and views expressed during social engagement. This cultural-glocalization approach is a method to quantify and qualify both individual and group development and overcome differences to achieve unity and understanding of diversity in regards to worldview and the impact it plays on morality. Ethical development is a lifelong process in stages influenced by a multitude of variables thus; morality is often expressive in a dynamic manner over the lifespan of individuals and cultures (Jensen, 2008).

Introduction

Black White or Shades of Grey, the influence of moral reasoning , attitude and legal disposition and the role it plays in delinquency and development in preteens, adolescence and throughout life is the basis of the Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning. In examining the strengths and weaknesses of the study and the possible implications for law-enforcement and education through the applications of the findings, an understanding of moral development and diversity summarized within this paper seek to give insights and alternatives to encourage further growth in the field of psychology and other areas pertaining to the discipline of ethics.

Moral reasoning is one’s view “or judgement of right or wrong on issues of morality” (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).  Legal reasoning is “ones consciousness and ability and appraisal or rules, regulations or laws within a culture or society” (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). Finally, “culture refers to any community of people who hold a commonality perspective of views, customs and values and does not imply any association to any particular ethnicity or nation” (Jensen, 2008).

Synopsis

Age is often a prediction and determining factor of delinquent behavior. Previous research from other studies have indicated that moral development occurs in stages beginning in early teens and develops through life (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). Additionally, “delinquent behavior escalates in late teens then declines in most young adults providing a reason why many crimes are committed by teen offenders (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Cognitive testing on teen offenders have indicted less sophisticated abstract reasoning skills in teens who commit crime although a certain degree of moral reasoning existed in the same individuals. Moral and legal reasoning both form a correlation to rule violation among teens. However, most researcher have examined the two variables separately (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). The Integrated Model of Moral Reasoning and Rule Violating Behavior combines these variables as well as legal attitudes into one model as a means to predict moral development as the possibility of delinquency (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

The model is comprised of a logical framework that examines various studies that may influence the ways that rule violation, legal reasoning and legal attitude combine to influence ones’ behavior and outlook on moral action. The numerous variables, causes and effects are compiled and tested using the structured educational model and then the results are equated to see how the differences and similarities between the various groups correlate within the cohorts studied (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

The current study of middle and high school teens was performed to predict the development of morality, moral identity, and the probability of delinquency and in what manner various influence shape moral perception, ethics, cognition, and culture influence moral development and conformity (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Proposal

Legal reasoning is one’s committed sense of legal obligation to their community a sense of right or wrong and their wilfulness to act accordingly and is often subdivided into three categories. The lowest class or ethics begins to emerge typically in youths around the age of 2-7 and is called preconventional legal reasoning (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014). This basic form of morality and cognition is commonly associated with the avoidance of punishment. The second class is conventional legal reasoning and is associated with the maintenance and preservation of law and order within society and culture. Most people global tend to develop only to the conventional level. Conventional reasoning is associated with the development of concrete learning, the ability to classify objects, spatial recognition, and view other people’s perspectives but not with abstract concepts and thus emerges around the age of 7-11 (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

The last classification is postconventional legal reasoning and involves the ability to challenge authority and advocate change for the prosperity of the higher order of society or culture (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). Individual’s exhibiting traits of postconventional reasoning exists a higher knowledge of the working of the legal system, a perception of the system to be just, and a lower likely hood of committing delinquent acts than people with lower legal reasoning abilities (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). Additionally although many people have a degree of postconventional reasoning abilities which begin to develop during adolescence with the blossoming of the ability to grasp abstract concepts and the ability to think outside the box. Postconventional reasoning develops throughout the various life stages, only reaches maturity in a few individuals, and often is considered a deviant or divergent trait in many societies and cultures (Martorell, Papalia, & Feldman, 2014).

Legal consciousness, or one’s legal attitude, has been attributed to offenses by many criminologist and psychologist (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).  Social bonding theory indicates that people are less susceptible to commit offenses when their peers or families hold them accountable to beliefs that are inconsistent with their own self-interest or that of their culture (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). Yet prior to committing a delinquent act many people rationalize or neutralize their values in order maintain a temporary equilibrium while committing an immoral action or offense (Jordan, Mullen, & Murnighan, 2011). Finally, people tend to learn delinquent and criminal behavior by modeling from peers. (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010) Individuals have a tendency to view the legal system in a negative perspective from past involvement with law enforcement either personally or from the negative experiences of people close to them within their culture or subculture (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Legal attitude is one’s acceptances of values and the social norm and includes one’s regard towards justice and the legal system and as such, a lower value would be an indicator of a predisposition towards delinquency with a higher value indicative of an approval of law enforcement and the justice (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

In the absence of research on the correlation of one’s legal consciousness moral reason and rule violation  plays in conjunction with either legal attitude and moral consciousness,  The integrated model is the first to compare and analyze all three variables in an attempt to understand the relationship all may play in moral development.

Moral reasoning, or the ability to differentiate right from wrong, is a cognitive skill that developing first in children and then becomes increasingly more advanced in most people over the course of a lifetime.  Moral reasoning is the means in which people justify a given behavior or action and in males is commonly focused on a belief of justice and logic or Judgement over rationality of Behavior or emotional response (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

However, self-reporting measures of delinquency and moral reasoning have given a variety of results indicating both a direct and indirect link of moral reasoning and the possibility of other variables in moral development and delinquency in youths and teens. In an attempt to explain these inconsistencies the Structured Equation Model, or SEM, was used in conjunction with a three stage longitudinal study developed from legal socialization theory.

The SEM, “which predicts normative status, enforcement status, attitude and meditation between legal reasoning and rule violation” from which a three stage self-reporting quiz was then developed, implemented and analyzed (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010). Phase 1 tested attitude, phase 2 tested normative and enforcement status and phase 3 evaluated attitude in correlation with reasoning and delinquency.

Finally, a separate model was develop to test the two cohort groups to determine the rate at which reasoning and attitude developed in each group and the overall model to gain a better association of all variables od development (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Methodology

Participants

This model is part of the New Hampshire Youth Study, which is an ongoing longitude study on moral development in early and late teens. Four communities were chosen with respect to diversity and testing was conducted with the classroom of various middle school and high school upon receiving parental consent and informing the participants and all parties of the intent of the study. Each participant was compensated with a ten-dollar gift card for each of the five sessions. 1040 students were initial chosen for the study. 935 complete the first session in 2007, while 939 completed the second phase. In the spring of 2008, during the last phase, only 831 finished the study.  Finally, after accounting for missing or incomplete data only 671 students completed the entire process. By comparing the means and standard deviation of those who completed all three sessions and those who did not or those with missing data there was no indication of a significant difference or variance among the cohorts (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Participants were composed of students from eight middle schools (384) and five high schools (287) and were 2/3 Caucasian with a gender composition of approximately 60% female in both groups. Additionally, participants reported religious affiliation, parents education level,  in addition to age, year in school, ethnicity and a composite score was calculated to obtain a SES score from 2-12 with the mean being 7.07 and SD 3.54.

 

Experimentation

The test was composed of a three-stage test based in the Delinquency Component of the National Youth Longitudinal Study given over 18 months. The first phase property offenses, and theft, the second violence and the third substance abuse. Each test was given in various places within schools and participants were asked to raise their hands to any question they had trouble understanding and each test was subdivided into two parts with a short break between sections. Each section took about 35 minutes to complete and all participants were guaranteed the right to privacy and confidentiality, Furthermore each student was separated a set apart avoid plagiarism. Finally, each student was assigned Id number to link the survey with each student. Upon returning for each additional phase, each student would give the researcher his or her name to be matched with an Id number to continue the next phase of the study.

Deduction

Preliminary findings were indicative that middle school students had a more positive perspective of the legal system and higher moral reasoning with females having a more advanced scores than boys. In the areas or enforcement, normative status and views towards law enforcement/ criminal legal systems there was not a significant difference between any of the groups.

By estimating the SEM and comparing against separate models for both middle schools and high school students and controlling for gender differences, a framework was established to create a more accurate analysis of the data sets.  During the first stage, moral reasoning had a direct correlation to delinquency. Additionally a year later individuals with higher normative status, lower enforcement status and lower legal attitude scores engaged in more rule violating behavior (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).  Additionally, moral reasoning indirectly predicted rule violation during stage 1 and 2 of the experiment. Legal reasoning however, indirectly predicted a correlation of rule violation and legal attitude. In individual with higher levels of legal reasoning, a more positive regard to the legal system was expressed. A direct correlation between delinquency and legal reasoning was determined with individual with lower legal reasoning ability scores having an association with rule violations and offenses (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Finally, moral reasoning among middle school students had a direct link to delinquency when correlated with the social normative status and criminal- legal disposition. It however also played an indirect role in overall legal attitude.

The results additional indicated legal reasoning forms an indirect correlation with legal attitude and perception of justice in middle school aged students. In contrast both moral and legal reasoning in high school students predicted delinquency.

Additionally, normative status and enforcement are directly linked to rule violation in this group. Finally both moral and legal reasoning as well as overall legal disposition form an indirect link as indicted by the relationship and presence of normative and enforcement status in all stages of testing (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Thus, the findings indicate that individuals who have either or both higher scores in legal or moral reasoning tend to approve of punishment for offenses, are less likely to break rules even when a certain approval of rule violation behavior occurs or when deviation from the social normative is present in individuals as is often present in high school students. Finally, those who exhibit a less positive legal attitude have a greater probability of committing offenses (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

 

Analysis

Weakness

The Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning allows researchers to better quantify and qualify ethical standards and predict the possibility of delinquency in people. Yet as the current study omitted social-economic variables and the sample, group was ethnically disproportioned towards the white majority and other cultural influences were not included in the study. A modification of the model including additional cultural, and SES variable could be conducted in other regions congruently in the United States and globally to give a better representation of moral diversity and developmental maturation in general.

Furthermore, although confidentiality and anonymity was respected and assured in the process, some participants of self-reporting studies fear exposure of responses and repercussions as a result may not fully respond in nonbiased manner. Thus, observation studies of individuals and groups within their cultural environmental need to be conducted, contrasted, and compared to gain a more accurate picture of ethics.

Strengths

Despite the drawbacks of the current study, is indicative moral and legal reasoning as well as cognitive level and legal attitude are predictive of delinquency in adolescence of all age groups. Additional studies conducted on other groups and cultures shall have a high possibility of yielding similar results. Intervention strategies to decrease delinquency in adolescent may be developed using the model and shall be focused on the offense committed, reduction in risk taking behavior, prevention of negative crisis events, and positive, family, community and legal awareness as well as cognitive and moral-legal development skills.

 

Relevancy & Practicality of Article

One such program that incorporates moral development and education is the PYD designed to implement rules and policies to increase moral reasoning. Other programs such as cooperation with law –enforcement in teen courts and other programs that focus on positive exposure to law enforcement and the legal system in general shall deter delinquency and aid in ethics and moral development (Cohn, Bucolo, Rebellon, & Gundy, 2010).

Furthermore, educators and students of all social sciences and law / law enforcement can use either the model or the present study to understand the relationship of legal and moral reasoning and attitude and the relationship of delinquency as well as the influence of cognitive development in people as it pertains both to ethics, morality as well as development in general.

 

 

 

Conclusion

The process of moral identity or the importance of ethics, social order, and other values are to an individual develops in various stages of life and is influenced by many variables including moral and legal reasoning, legal disposition, culture/ socio-economic, biological function, cognitive ability, and one’s peers and past and present experiences as well as spiritual views (Hardy & Carlo, 2011). The Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning is on tool used to quantify and qualify these various variables and predict deviance from social normative values,  the probability of delinquency, and other element of moral development. Yet the current model is not without flaws. Black White or Shades of Grey moral development and identity is both uniquely subjective to individuals and culture yet develops in a similar fashion among many people. Future studies using the models need to include variables of gender, SES, and be conducted in more ethnically and culturally diverse settings. However, the current findings suggest individuals who exhibit a less positive legal attitude have a greater probability of committing offenses and both higher scores in legal or moral reasoning tend to approve of punishment for offenses, are less likely to break rules even when a certain approval of rule violation behavior occurs or a deviation from the social normative occurs. Finally, the result may be applied to created policies to deter delinquency and increase social and legal awareness while advancing programs to blossom cognitive, legal, and moral developmental skills.

Postscript

While the Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning shows promise for reduction of delinquency and is indicative of the role of cognitive moral and legal reason and legal disposition in preteens and teens as the study only is apprehensive of the social normative of a selective white majority within a selective region of the United States. The study needs to be conducted over more regions within the U.S. and Globally to give a more accurate picture of moral identify and legal and moral reasoning and attitude and the factors it plays in delinquency and ethics.

Additionally, the study does not account for cognitive, social or biological development factors of morality in early development that influence morality and conduct although the Integrated Model may be used to study Early Childhood or Infants as well.  Further studies extended to other developmental groups such as adults, middle age and late adulthood. The results obtained from such studies shall be compared and contrasted in a systematic model to give a universal understanding of moral and social identity and the impacts of delinquency and attitude. The application of a universal study on all groups as promising possibilities

The implementation of better strategies for education and awareness and  improvement in law enforcement and cultural and social sensitivity and diversity shall work towards striving of coexistence and universal diversity and unconditional positive regard and mutual respect as all people trudge the road towards self-actualization and enlightenment or oneness with the Creator of All Things.

 References

Berger, K. S. (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. New York: Worth Publishers.

Cohn, E. S., Bucolo, D., Rebellon, C. J., & Gundy, K. V. (2010, August). An Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning and Rule-Violating Behavior: The Role of Legal Attitudes. Law and Human Behavior, 34(4), 295 – 309. doi:10.1007/s10979-009-9185-9

Hardy, S. A., & Carlo, G. (2011, September). Moral Identity: What Is It, How Does It Develop, and Is It Linked to Moral Action? Child Development Perspectives, 5(3), 212 – 218. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00189.x

Jensen, L. A. (2008). Through two lenses: A cultural–developmental to moral psychology. Developmental Review, 28(3), 289 – 315. doi:doi:10.1016/j.dr.2007.11.001

Jordan, J., Mullen, E., & Murnighan, J. K. (2011, May). Striving for the Moral Self: The Effects of Recalling Past Moral Actions on Future Moral Behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(5), 701 – 713. doi:10.1177/0146167211400208

Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.

 

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